Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
Artigo Original


Jose Maria Rodriguez-Ibabe, Houxin Wang, Douglas Glenn Stahlheim, Ronaldo Antonio Neves Marques Barbosa

Downloads: 0
Views: 81


Alloy, labor, and energy made up for major costs in the production of flat and long commodity-grade structural steel products. Flat and long commodity-grade structural steels such as ASTM A36, ASTM A527Gr50, S235, S275, S355, and other equivalent world societal standards represent over 500 million annual tons worldwide. Carbon, manganese, and silicon constitute the minimum base of alloying elements for the commodity structural steels. This base can be then supplemented with microalloying elements of either vanadium or niobium. Since 2016 raw material costs for two of the five alloying elements in these commodity-grade structural steels, FeMn and FeV, have risen significantly and/or have become volatile. This is making difficult to maintain stability in profitability. For steel plants producing hundreds of thousands and in some cases over a million tons annually of these common structural steel grades, because of the significant alloy cost increase for Mn and V, alloy additions have squeezed profitability. Commodity-grades usually represent the base loading for cost controls in most steel plants. Hence a significant cost increase or volatility in two of the five elements used for these grades will have a negative effect on overall production costs. However, with a proper strategy for alloy design working in conjunction with the mills’ existing processing capabilities to achieve the desired end metallurgy/mechanical properties, alloy costs and operational efficiencies can be realized.


Optimization; Strategy; Niobium; Microstructural modeling.


1 Barbosa R, Ibabe JM, Stalheim D, Rebellato M. Alloy cost optimization through proper metallurgical development of strength and ductility properties in structural steels. In: AISTech 2018: Proceedings of the Iron & Steel Technology Conference; 2018 May 7-10; Philadelphia, PA, USA. Warrendale: Association for Iron & Steel Technology; 2018.

2 Argus Metals. Metals bulletin. London: CBMM.

3 Stalheim D. Generation of stable optimized thru-thickness mechanical properties in wide heavy gauge structural steel plate. In: AISTech 2018: Proceedings of the Iron & Steel Technology Conference; 2018 May 7-10; Philadelphia, PA, USA. Warrendale: Association for Iron & Steel Technology; 2018.

4 Lu J, Ivey D, Henein H, Wiskel J, Omotoso O. Microstructure characterization and strengthening mechanisms of microalloyed steels. In: Proceedings of 2008 ASME International Pipeline Conference; 2008; Sept; Calgary, Canada. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 2008.

5 Isasti N, Jorge-Badiola D, Taheri ML, Uranga P. Microstructural features controlling mechanical properties in Nb-Mo microalloyed steels part II: impact toughness. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science. 2014;45(11):4972-4982.

6 Ibabe JM, Uranga P, Isasti N, Stalheim D, Kendrick V, Frye B, et al. Optimized cost-effective production of structural hot rolled CSP coils through proper austenite conditioning. In: Proceedings of AISTech 2017; 2017; Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Warrendale: Association for Iron & Steel Technology; 2017.

7 Pickering FB. Some aspects of the relationships between the mechanical properties of steels and their microstructures. Tisco. 1980;27(1):105-132.

8 Zajac S. Precipitation of microalloy carbo-nitrides prior, during and after γ/α transformation. Materials Science Forum. 2005;500-501:75-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.500-501.75.

9 Chen C-Y, Yang J-R, Chen C-C, Chen S-F. Microstructural characterization and strengthening behavior of nanometer sized carbides in Ti-Mo microalloyed steels during continuous cooling process. Materials Characterization. 2016;114:18-29.

10 Barbosa R, Uranga P, Rodriguez-Ibabe JM, Stahlheim D, Rebellato M, Qiao ML, et al. Microalloying additions to commodity C-Mn structural steels: fundamental strengthening mechanisms leading to improvements in mechanical properties, alloy optimization, reduced alloy costs and robustness of hot rolling processing. In: THERMEC 2018: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials; 2018; Paris, France. Zurich: Trans Tech Publications; 2018.

11 Pickering FB. Physical metallurgy and the design of steel. London: Allied Science Publishers; 1978. 275 p.

12 Zhe C. Thermomechanical processing of structural steels with dilute niobium additions [thesis]. Sheffield: University of Sheffield; 2016.

13 Siwecki T, Sandberg A, Roberts W, Lagneborg R. The influence of processing route and nitrogen content on microstructure development and precipitation hardening in vanadium microalloyed HSLA-steels. In: Proceedings of Thermomechanical Processing of Microalloyed Austenite; 1982; Pittsburgh, PA. Warrendale: AIME; 1982. p. 163-194.

14 Mesquita R, Wang Y, Williams B, Heerema J, Jansto S, Yalamanchili B. A case study on niobium substituting vanadium in long products. In: Proceedings of MS&T 2018; 2018; Columbus, OH, USA. Westerville: American Ceramic Society; 2018.

Submetido em:

Aceito em:

5f0cbdfe0e882553228c6951 tmm Articles
Links & Downloads

Tecnol. Metal. Mater. Min.

Share this page
Page Sections