Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
Artigo Original - Edição Especial “Tributo ao Prof. T. R. Strohaecker”

Residual stress states in cementite and ferrite in a combined cold drawing process of AISI 1045 steel using neutron diffraction and synchrotron radiation

Rafael Menezes Nunes, Alexandre da Silva Rocha, Thomas Georg Karl Hirsch

Downloads: 0
Views: 426


The evaluation and control of residual stress states in manufacturing processes such as cold drawing can be difficult, especially in multi-phase materials. Diffraction methods are ideal for characterizing residual stresses in individual phases provided these phases scatter neutrons or X-rays well enough to obtain a good signal. Residual stresses determination problems in drawn components have been reported. Main constraints are measurements in the primary ferrite phase only. The presence of cementite in carbon steel is often neglected. A problem that has not yet been extensively investigated is how residual stresses in the ferrite and cementite phases develop in subsequent steps of material processing such as cold drawing. In this work a combined straightening and bar drawing process of AISI 1045 round bars from coils of a hot-rolled material was investigated. A careful characterization of the material, including residual stress states in the ferrite (α−Fe) and cementite (Fe3 C) phases, using neutron diffraction and synchrotron diffraction was performed for each of the different manufacturing steps. The drawing and polishing and straightening (P.S.) parameters by crossed rolls were changed to evaluate their influence on the α−Fe and Fe3 C residual stress distributions. After the drawing process, residual stresses in the cementite phase are highly tensile, as already reported, however it can be shown that after polishing and straightening steps residual stresses in the cementite phase decrease and residual stress distributions also depend on the tool angle used.


Combined cold drawing; Residual stress; Neutron diffraction; Synchrotron diffraction; Residual stresses; Cementite.


1 Rocha AS, Nunes RM, Hirsch T. Changes in the axial residual stresses in AISI 1045 steel bars resulting from a combined drawing process chain. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B-Journal of Engineering Manufacture. 2012;226:459-465.

2 Hauk V, Behnken H. Structural and residual stress analysis by nondestructive methods: evaluation, application, assessment. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1997.

3 VanAcker K, Root J, VanHoutte P, Aernoudt E. Neutron diffraction measurement of the residual stress in the cementite and ferrite phases of cold-drawn steel wires. Acta Materialia. 1996;44(10):4039-4049. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6454(96)00051-1.

4 Martinez-Perez ML, Mompean FJ, Ruiz-Hervias J, Borlado CR, Atienza JM, Garcia-Hernandez M, et al. Residual stress profiling in the ferrite and cementite phases of cold-drawn steel rods by synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction. Acta Materialia. 2004;52(18):5303-5313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2004.07.036.

5 Martinez-Perez ML, Borlado CR, Mompean FJ, Garcia-Hernandez M, Gil-Sevillano J, Ruiz-Hervias J, et al. Measurement and modelling of residual stresses in straightened commercial eutectoid steel rods. Acta Materialia. 2005;53(16):4415-4425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2005.05.039.

6 Atienza JM, Elices M. Influence of residual stresses in the tensile test of cold drawn wires. Materials and Structures. 2003;36(8):548-552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02480832.

7 Caballero L, Atienza JM, Elices M. Thermo-mechanical treatment effects on stress relaxation and hydrogen embrittlement of cold-drawn eutectoid steels. Metals and Materials International. 2011;17(6):899-910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12540-011-6006-8.

8 Vander Voort GF. Metallography, principles and practice. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International; 1999. 752 p.

9 Genzel C, Denks IA, Gibmeier J, Klaus M, Wagener G. The materials science synchrotron beamline EDDI for energy-dispersive diffraction analysis. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2007;578(1):23-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2007.05.209.

10 Genzel C, Stock C, Reimers W. Application of energy-dispersive diffraction to the analysis of multiaxial residual stress fields in the intermediate zone between surface and volume. Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2004;372:28-43.

11 Caballero FG, Garcia-Mateo C, de Andres CG. Dilatometric study of reaustenitisation of high silicon bainitic steels: decomposition of retained austenite. Materials Transactions. 2005;46(3):581-586. http://dx.doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.46.581.

12 Poeste T, Wimpory RC, Schneider R. The new and upgraded neutron instruments for materials science at HMI - current activities in cooperation with industry. Materials Science Forum. 2006;524-525:223-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.524-525.223.

13 Fitzpatrick ME. Alain Lodini: analysis of residual stress by diffraction using neutron and synchrotron radiation. London: Taylor & Francis; 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9780203608999.

14 Gibmeier J, Kornmeier J, Hofmann M. Neutron Diffraction Stress Analysis of Near Surface Stress Gradients of Surface Treated Steel Samples. Advances in X-ray Analysis. 2009;52:279-286.

15 Webster GA, Wimpory RC. Development of procedures for the measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction. Appl Phys a-Mater. 2002;74:S1227-S1229.

16 Wimpory RC, Ohms C, Hofmann M, Schneider R, Youtsos AG. Corrigendum to “Statistical analysis of residual stress determinations using neutron diffraction” [International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86(1) 48–62]. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping. 2009;86(10):721-721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpvp.2009.03.003.

17 Hirsch TGK, Rocha AS, Nunes RM. Distortion Analysis in the Manufacturing of Cold-Drawn and Induction-Hardened Components. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. 2013;v(n):1-11.

18 Porter DA, Easterling KE. Dynamic studies of the tensile deformation and fracture of pearlite. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy. 1978;7:55-56.

19 Miller LE, Smith GC. Tensile fractures in carbon steels. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. 1970;208:998-1005.

20 Li S, Yip TH, Ramanujan RV, Liang MH. Insitu TEM studies of the mechanisms of crack nucleation and propagation in fully lamellar microstructures. Materials Science and Technology. 2003;19(7):902-906. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/026708303225004378.

21 Rosenfield AR, Hahn GT, Embury JD. Fracture of steels containing pearlite. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. B, Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science. 1972;3(11):2797-2804. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02652845.

22 Dastalukder NK, Singh AN. Mechanics of bar straightening, part 2: straightening in cross-roll straighteners. Journal of Engineering for Industry. 1991;113(2):228-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2899683.

Submetido em:

Aceito em:

606b45c8a9539561a9708ad2 tmm Articles
Links & Downloads

Tecnol. Metal. Mater. Min.

Share this page
Page Sections