Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
Artigo Original

Analyzing technological alternatives of solid and gaseous fuels for iron ore compact sintering machines applying a multiphase mathematical modeling

José Adilson de Castro; Elizabeth Mendes de Oliveira; Giulio Antunes de Medeiros; Erik Nascimento de Carvalho

Downloads: 0
Views: 136


The steel industry has faced challenges regarding the raw materials and fuels, and hence economic and environmental restrictions. This paper is focused on searching alternatives based on biomass and gaseous fuels suitable for replacing the coke breeze fossil fuel. The iron ore sintering process is a key technology in the steel industry due to its possibility of recycling waste solids or powders internally produced during the raw materials handling or subsequent process of steel production. However, this process is also recognized as one of the most critical units with regard to particulates and polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/F, NOx, SOx) emissions. The outlet gas treatment involves the cleaning with electrostatic precipitator and filter bags. New process concepts and technologies have been proposed such as gas recycling, fuel gas injection and biomasses fuels besides recycling waste solids replacing natural raw materials. Nevertheless, testing these technologies is expensive. Therefore, comprehensive mathematical models based on transport phenomena are efficient tools to study and indicate new possibilities for designing operational conditions as well as resizing the machines for minimizing the hazardous emissions. In this study, the model principles and analysis cases are presented and discussed. A technological proposal for using waste solid biomass in the iron ore sintering process is analyzed using the specific hazardous emissions of PCDD/F, NOx, SOx and particulates as decision parameter. It was also evaluated proposals for the use of process gases and hydrogen fuel as partial substitution to coke breeze. The results indicated that about 20% of the solid fossil fuels could be replaced by waste solid residue of biomass (processed as small pellets) generated during the charcoal production and handling and wood processing, or by injection of fuel gases such as coke oven gas, BF gas and hydrogen, resulting in benefits such as productivity gains, lower carbon intensity and reduced PCDD/F, NOx, SOx emissions.


Modeling; Cleaner sintering process; Solid wastes; Biomass; Hydrogen


1 Castro JA, Oliveira EM, Campos MF, Takano C, Yagi J. Analyzing cleaner alternatives of solid and gaseous fuels for iron ore sintering in compacts machines. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018;198:654-661.

2 Castro JA, Silva LM, Medeiros GA, Oliveira EM, Nogami H. Analysis of a compact iron ore sintering process based on agglomerated biochar and gaseous fuels using a 3D multiphase multicomponent mathematical model. Journal of Materials Research and Technology. 2020;9(3):6001-6013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2020.04.004.

3 Guilherme VS, Castro JA. Utilização de gás de coqueria na sinterização de minério de ferro. REM. Revista Escola de Minas. 2012;65:357-362. http://doi.org/10.1590/S0370-44672012000300012.

4 Castro JA, Guilherme VS, França AB, Sasaki Y. Iron ore sintering process based on alternative gaseous fuels from steelworks. Advanced Materials Research. 2012;535:554-560. http://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.535- 537.554.

5 Castro JA, Pereira JL, Guilherme VS, Rocha EP, França AB. Model predictions of PCDD and PCDF emissions on the iron ore sintering process based on alternative gaseous fuels. Journal of Materials Research and Technology. 2013;2:323-331. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.06.002.

6 Oyama N, Iwami Y, Yamamoto T, Machida S, Yguchi T, Sato H, et al. Development of secondary-fuel injection technology for energy reduction in the iron ore sintering process. ISIJ International. 2011;51:913-921. http://doi. org/10.2355/isijinternational.51.913.

7 Yamaoka H, Kawaguchi T. Development of a 3-D sinter process mathematical simulation model. ISIJ International. 2005;45:522-531. http://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.45.522.

8 Castro JA, Sasaki Y, Yagi J. Three dimensional mathematical model of the iron ore sintering process based on multiphase theory. Materials Research. 2012;15:848-858. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392012005000107.

9 Ahan H, Choi S, Cho B. Process simulation of iron ore sintering bed with flue gas recirculation. Part 2 – Parametric variation of gas conditions. Ironmaking & Steelmaking. 2013;40:128-137. http://doi.org/10.1179/1743281 212Y.0000000072.

10 Kasai E, Komarov S, Nushiro K, Nakano M. Design of bed structure aiming the control of void structure formed in the sinter cake. ISIJ International. 2005;45:538-543. http://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.45.538.

11 Higuchi K, Takamoto Y, Orimoto T, Sato T, Koizumi F, Shinagawa K, et al. Quality improvement of sintered ore in relation to blast furnace operation. Nippon Steel Technical Report. 2006;94(7):36.

12 Castro JA, França AB, Guilherme VS, Sasaki Y. Estudo numerico da influencia de propriedades de amolecimento e fusão na cinetica de formação na sinetrização de minerio de ferro. Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração. 2013;10(1):16-27. http://doi.org/10.4322/tmm.2013.003.

13 Mitterlehner J, Loeffler G, Winter F, Hofbauer H, Smid H, Zwittag E, et al. Modeling and simulation of heat front propagation in the iron ore sintering process. ISIJ International. 2004;44:11-20. http://doi.org/10.2355/ isijinternational.44.11.

14 Cumming MJ, Thurlby JA. Developments in modeling and simulation of iron ore sintering. Ironmaking & Steelmaking. 1990;17:245-254.

15 Omori Y. The blast furnace phenomena and modeling. London: Elsevier Applied Science; 1987.

16 Nogueira PF, Fruehan RJ. Blast furnace burden softening and melting phenomena. Part III: melt onset and initial microstructural transformations in pellets. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. B, Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science. 2006;37:551-558. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-006-0038-3.

17 El-Hussiny NA, Khalifa AA, El-Midany AA, Ahmed AA. Effect of replacement coke breeze by charcoal on technical operation of iron ore sintering. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 2015;6:681-686.

18 Lu L, Adam M, Kilburn M, Hapugoda S, Somerville M, Jahanshahi S, et al. Substitution of charcoal for coke breeze in iron ore sintering. ISIJ International. 2013;53:1607-1616. http://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.53.1607. 19 Kasama S, Yamamura Y, Watanabe K. Investigation on the Dioxin Emission from a commercial Sintering Plant. ISIJ International. 2006;46:1014-1019. http://doi.org/10.2355/ isijinternational.46.1014.

20 Rocha EP, Castro JA, Vitoretti FP, Vermilli F Jr. Kinetic of self-reducing mixtures of iron ore and biomass of elephant grass. Materials Science Forum (Online). 2016;869:1007-1012.

21 Melaen MC. Calculation of fluid flows with staggered and nonstaggered curvilinear nonorthogonal grids-the theory. Numerical Heat Transfer Part B. 1992;21(1):1-19. http://doi.org/10.1080/10407799208944919.

22 Patankar SV. Numerical heat transfer and fluid flow. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing Company; 1985. 197 p

Submetido em:

Aceito em:

66420faaa95395126e0edab4 tmm Articles
Links & Downloads

Tecnol. Metal. Mater. Min.

Share this page
Page Sections