Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
https://tecnologiammm.com.br/article/doi/10.4322/2176-1523.20242996
Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
Artigo Original

Analyzing technological alternatives of solid and gaseous fuels for iron ore compact sintering machines applying a multiphase mathematical modeling

José Adilson de Castro; Elizabeth Mendes de Oliveira; Giulio Antunes de Medeiros; Erik Nascimento de Carvalho

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Abstract

The steel industry has faced challenges regarding the raw materials and fuels, and hence economic and environmental restrictions. This paper is focused on searching alternatives based on biomass and gaseous fuels suitable for replacing the coke breeze fossil fuel. The iron ore sintering process is a key technology in the steel industry due to its possibility of recycling waste solids or powders internally produced during the raw materials handling or subsequent process of steel production. However, this process is also recognized as one of the most critical units with regard to particulates and polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/F, NOx, SOx) emissions. The outlet gas treatment involves the cleaning with electrostatic precipitator and filter bags. New process concepts and technologies have been proposed such as gas recycling, fuel gas injection and biomasses fuels besides recycling waste solids replacing natural raw materials. Nevertheless, testing these technologies is expensive. Therefore, comprehensive mathematical models based on transport phenomena are efficient tools to study and indicate new possibilities for designing operational conditions as well as resizing the machines for minimizing the hazardous emissions. In this study, the model principles and analysis cases are presented and discussed. A technological proposal for using waste solid biomass in the iron ore sintering process is analyzed using the specific hazardous emissions of PCDD/F, NOx, SOx and particulates as decision parameter. It was also evaluated proposals for the use of process gases and hydrogen fuel as partial substitution to coke breeze. The results indicated that about 20% of the solid fossil fuels could be replaced by waste solid residue of biomass (processed as small pellets) generated during the charcoal production and handling and wood processing, or by injection of fuel gases such as coke oven gas, BF gas and hydrogen, resulting in benefits such as productivity gains, lower carbon intensity and reduced PCDD/F, NOx, SOx emissions.

Keywords

Modeling; Cleaner sintering process; Solid wastes; Biomass; Hydrogen

Referências

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Submetido em:
22/09/2023

Aceito em:
10/04/2024

66420faaa95395126e0edab4 tmm Articles
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