Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
Artigo Original

Study of the compositional and melting characteristics of some Brazilian and Congolese tin slags

Daniel Mapa Clemente; Rafaela de Oliveira Teixeira Menezes; Heitor Vieira Damaso; Johne Jesus Mol Peixoto; Carlos Antônio da Silva

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Knowledge of the melting behavior of tin slags is essential to optimize the power input in the furnace during processing of cassiterite since it influences the energy required to melt the slag. Furthermore, the melting point of a slag depends on its composition, making it highly relevant. Considering these aspects, industrial tin slags from Brazil and DR Congo were analyzed by EDXRF and their melting temperatures were measured using a softening and melting furnace. The Brazilian slags presented a higher content of ZrO2, as well as varying levels of Nb2 O5 , TiO2 , Al2 O3 , among others. This is related to contaminations of minerals in the cassiterite such as zirconite, ilmenite, and columbite. Most Brazilian samples melted below 1533K, contrasting with a previous study which indicated a range of 1603-1801K. The Congolese slags were not as reduced as those from Brazil and greater content of SnO2 and Ta2 O5 were measured. These Congolese slags melted on average at temperatures slightly above those from Brazil, which is mostly due to the greater SnO2 content. Levels of different oxides were plotted against the measured melting temperatures and a preliminary prediction model was developed. This may assist smelters to estimate their slag’s melting point, potentially leading to an optimization of energy consumption and Sn losses during processing of Brazilian or Congolese ores/slags.


Tin; Melting temperature; Melting behavior; Tin slags


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