Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
Tecnologia em Metalurgia, Materiais e Mineração
Artigo Original - Edição Especial “Tributo ao Prof. T. R. Strohaecker”

Manufacturing an upset end by friction welding in an API X65 steel

Guilherme Vieira Braga Lemos, Diogo Buzzatti, Carla Amavisca, Giovani Dalpiaz, Marcelo Torres Piza Paes, Luis Kanan, Afonso Reguly

Downloads: 1
Views: 497


Deepwater and ultra-deepwater oil and gas exploitation might be challenge due to the fatigue damage at the touchdown zone (TDZ). Therefore, the development of risers with thicker pipe ends (upset end) is a solution to diminish issues related to fatigue through reducing the average axial stress. In the current study, manufacturing of an upset end was carried out by friction welding in an API X65 PLS2 steel pipe with outer diameter of 220 mm. Considering the welding geometry called ‘tube to tube’, pipe sections were machined with different thickness. Thus, in the welding process, the rotational speed was employed in the upset (thicker pipe), while the axial force was applied in the thinner pipe. Hence, this work presents the feasibility of manufacturing an upset end through friction welding and the metallurgical and mechanical properties of the joint. The results showed a suitable welded joint with good top surface appearance and no defects. The samples have not fractured in fatigue tests, which indicate high fatigue life


Manufacturing; Friction welding; API X65; Upset end; Fatigue properties.


1 Sen TK. Probability of fatigue failure in steel catenary risers in deep water. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. 2006;132(9):1001-1006.

2 Lemos GVB, Farina AB, Nunes RM, Cunha PHCP, Bergmann L, Santos JF, et al. Residual stress characterization in friction stir welds of alloy 625. Journal of Materials Research and Technology. 2019;8(3):2528-2537.

3 American Petroleum Institute. API specification 5L. 45th ed. Washington: API Publishing Services; 2012.

4 Aggarwal R, Mourelle MM, Kristoffersen S, Godinot H, Vargas P, Else M, et al. Development and qualification of alternate solutions for improved fatigue performance of deepwater steel catenary risers. In: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Proceeding of the 26th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering; 2007 June 10-15; San Diego, USA. Vol. 1: Offshore Technology; Special Symposium on Ocean Measurements and Their Influence on Design. USA: ASME; 2007. p. 315-329.

5 Aggarwal R, Bhat SU, Meling TS, Linden C, Mourelle MM, Else M. Qualification of enhanced SCR design solutions for improving fatigue life at touch down zone. In: International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. Proceedings of the 16th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference; 2006 28 May-2 June; San Francisco, USA. USA: ISOPE; 2006.

6 Mekha B, Hawkey B, Chandler BD, Fazackerley B, Stevens DM. State-of-the-Art SCR Qualification Program for 24 inch× 40 mm Thick Clad Pipe with Upset Ends for the Browse Project. In: Offshore Technology Conference; 2014 May 5-8; Texas, USA. USA: ISOPE; 2014.

7 Izquierdo A, Aggarwal R, Quintanilla H, García E, López V, Richard G, et al. Qualification of weldable X65 grade riser sections with upset ends to improve fatigue performance of deepwater steel catenary risers. In: International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. Proceedings of the 18th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference; 2008 July 6-11; Vancouver, Canada. USA: ISOPE; 2008. p. 71-79.

8 New Touch Down Zone (TDZ) Solutions for Steel Catenary Risers (SCRs). Development and qualification of alternative design solutions Joint Industry Project (JIP) report. USA: US Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service & US Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration; 2008.

9 Yue B, Campbell M, Walters D, Thompson H, Raghavan K. Improved SCR design for dynamic vessel applications. In: American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection. Proceeding of the 29th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering; 2010 June 6-11; Shanghai, China. New York: ASME; 2010. p. 495-504.

10 Meyer A, Pauly D, Dos Santos JF, Pinheiro G, Roos A, Gibson D, et al. Considerations on robotic friction stitch welding for the repair of marine structures. In: Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering; 2001 June 3-8; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rio de Janeiro; p 145-151.

11 Santos GM, Formoso CM, Franco SD, Franco VLD S. Optimization of control parameters in a friction hydro pillar processing unit to repair oil steel structures. In ABCM Symp. Ser. Mechatron; 2012; Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro: ABCM; 2012. p. 73-82.

12 Yeh FWT, Pereira da Cunha PHC, Lessa CRL, Clarke T, Strohaecker T. Evaluation of discontinuities in A36 steel repairs with friction hydro pillar processing using different axial forces. ISIJ International. 2013;53(12):2269-2271.

13 Lessa CR L. Soldagem FHPP: processo e metalurgia nas transformações das fases de um aço C-Mn [thesis]. Porto Alegre: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; 2011.

14 Defalco J, Steel R. Friction stir process now welds steel pipe. Welding Journal. 2009;88(5):44-48.

15 ASM International. Welding, Brazing and soldering. Vol. 6. Materials Park: ASM; 1999.

16 Mishra RS, Ma ZY. Friction stir welding and processing. Materials Science and Engineering R Reports. 2005;50(1-2):1-78.

17 Crossland B. Friction welding: recommended practices for friction welding. Contemporary Physics. 1971;12(6):559-574.

18 Blakemore GR. Friction welding: technology for the new millennium. In: Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference; 1999 May 3-6; Houston, USA. OTC; 1999.

19 ASM International. ASTM E8M: standard test methods for tension testing of metallic materials. Materials Park: ASM; 2016.

20 Anelli E, Colleluori D, Cumino G, Izquierdo A, Quintanilla H. Development of high grade seamless pipes for deepwater application by metallurgical design. In: Metallurgical Process Technology: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on New Developments; 2005 September 19-21; Riva del Garda. AIM; 2005.

21 Faes K, Dhooge A, Baets P, Afschrift P. Influence of deceleration phase on properties of friction welded pipelines using intermediate ring. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining. 2008;13(2):136-145.

22 Chludzinski M, Santos RE, Pissanti DR, Kroeff FC, Mattei F, Dalpiaz G, et al. Full-scale friction welding system for pipeline steels. Journal of Materials Research and Technology. 2019;8(2):1773-1780.

Submetido em:

Aceito em:

6036bef7a9539548ec536482 tmm Articles
Links & Downloads

Tecnol. Metal. Mater. Min.

Share this page
Page Sections